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2007.09.24

家庭でできる傷の処置

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手足の切り傷は日常生活でよくある怪我のひとつです。
刃物により切り傷以外には転倒などによる擦り傷、ペットによる噛み傷釘やピンなどによる刺し傷があります。見た目で傷を判断した場合、出血量が多い場合や傷が大きい場合は殆んどの人が医療機関を訪れます。
ところが傷が小さいから、あるいは出血がほとんどないからといって必ずしも傷が直るとは限りません。傷口がふさがっていても、感染といってばい菌が繁殖していることがあるからです。この感染を生じやすい傷の特徴を考えてみましょう。
まず傷の深さがどの程度か、ということです。擦り傷などでは出血も少なく皮膚の表面の傷ですが家庭用の消毒剤やテープで表面を覆って処置をする場合があります。この場合処置を行う前に必ず水道水などの水で傷の表面にある、たとえばアスファルトの粉などの汚れを洗い落とすことが大切です。異物のあるままに傷の表面を覆ってしまうと、ばい菌が繁殖し感染のもとになってしまいます。目で見える異物が自分では取り除けなければ医療機関で局所麻酔をして取り除くことが大切です。かみ傷や刺し傷は皮膚の表面か、あるいは皮膚の下の脂肪や筋肉などの組織に達しているか、いないかの判断がとても重要です。これらの傷は表面の傷口が小さいため皮膚の下に達する場合は殆んど感染してしまうからです。特にペットの噛み傷が指の場合などは腱や骨に達することもあり手遅れになった場合は指を切断しなければならないという例もあります。傷の深さの判断に迷った場合は必ず6時間以内に医療機関を受診してください。家庭で行う傷の処置は傷が深くなく異物がない場合、十分に洗浄して家庭にある軟膏や赤チンなどを塗らず絆創膏のみで傷を覆うことが基本の処置と考えましょう。

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