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2007.07.22

疲労骨折

Stress_fracture

レントゲンでは診断がつきにくい、足やすね、胸や腕の痛みがあります。知らないうちに骨が折れているという状態でこれを「疲労骨折」と呼びます。通常は全く問題のない力なのに特定の部位への継続的なストレスが繰り返し加わることで金属が折れてしまうという状況に似ています。スポーツトレーニングの過度の負荷が原因であることが多く、小学生の低学年から50歳代まで幅広く発生します。10歳代でスポーツクラブに入る時期に多く16歳が発生のピークと報告されています。痛みを感じ始めたときに病院でレントゲンをとっても注意深くレントゲンを見ないと骨折は発見されないことがあります。症状がでてから一ヶ月以上経過してレントゲンを再びとると、疲労骨折の部位は仮骨と呼ばれるあたらしい骨で修復され、疲労骨折の場所が太く映って、その時点で初めてレントゲンで明らかに診断がつくようになります。この状態で無理をおして競技を続けていると、いつまでたっても症状が取れません。それどころか最悪の場合に急激な外傷による骨折と同様、骨の連続性がなくなる完全骨折になることもあります。このような事態を防ぐためにも指導者や保護者そして競技者本人はスポーツ活動を休む事の大切さを考えるべきです。たとえばスネの骨の疲労骨折では足の負担を軽くするために運動の時間や頻度を減らし、運動の強度は水泳や自転車など足に荷重のかからない、今までとは違う競技で維持していく方法も考えられます。運動再開時には、いきなりランニングをしたりせずに、通常の2~3倍の時間をかけて、入念にウオーミングアップしてから、練習することが大切です。ランニングの際には、アスファルトのような硬い路面を避けて、芝生など柔らかい土のグラウンドを選んで走り始めて下さい。疲労骨折と医師に告げられて活動を休止したときには、これを機会に自分自身の体力や競技のフォームそしてトレーニング環境を見直すことが最も重要で、これが再発予防につながります。

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